Management … Definition, Functions and Types

09-09-19 Dr.Adnan 0 comment

Management is considered as one of the modern social sciences. While the administration has been known as a profession and craft since ancient civilizations, the interest of it as a science started only at the beginning of the nineteenth century after the Second World War.

Management Definition

Management is defined as the process of planning and organizing a business to achieve certain objectives. The department consists of a number of functions that seek to build corporate policy, plan, organize, monitor and direct the financial and human resources of an organization, which is the manager who has the responsibility and authority to supervise the enterprise and make decisions.

Management Functions

The five key functions of managing are strategic planning, organizing resources, staffing, directing activities and controlling the company’s success. So, the organizations are keen to provide management training to employees in order to achieve the companies’ aims.

1-The Strategic Planning of Actions

Strategic planning is the process of evaluating the goals of the company and then setting a course for success. This function evaluates the existing activities and goals. Managers then schedule activities that will lead to achieving those goals. Leaders tend to be more strategic: they must become problem solvers able to see the big picture while also identifying specific things that affect overall success. For example, if the goal is to improve the time it takes for customers to get their order fulfilled, then an operational strategy is executed to improve product fulfillment.

2-Organizing Resources to Achieve Goals

The organizing function brings resources together to achieve the goals established in the planning function. Resources include materials, personnel and financial backing. Leaders need to identify what activities are necessary, assign those activities to specific personnel, effectively delegating tasks. Leaders need to coordinate tasks to keep resources moving efficiently toward goals. It is important to prioritize which resources are essential at any given time. For example, if more inventory is needed but the company doesn’t have the financial resources to obtain the inventory, then the priority is to tackle the financial need.

3- Putting the Right Talent in the Right Place

When a business is short-handed, it cripples the company’s ability to serve customers, and it also overwhelms existing staff. Management needs to identify key staff positions, and to ensure that the proper talent is serving that specific job duty. Once the right staffing structure is established, leaders need training, professional development, pay rates and monitoring performance. Effective leaders are able to develop talent and identify those ready for promotion.

4- Guiding and Directing Activities

Directing activities is a key function. Letting staff know what needs to be done, and also by when is a responsibility of managers. However, bosses tell people what to do, while leaders motivate people to contribute in meaningful ways. The directing function requires leaders to do more than simply give orders, even though tasks must be completed for business success. This function begins with supervising subordinates while simultaneously motivating teams through guided leadership communicated in clear ways.

5- Controlling Success Systems

Controlling systems refers to all the processes that leaders create to monitor success. Sports coaches have a saying, “Winners keep score,” meaning that winners know where they are and know what is necessary to achieve a goal. This business function requires leaders to establish performance standards, measure actual performance and compare the metrics to determine anomalies.

For example, a sales leader is focused on more than only the final sales numbers; he considers the leading activities such as the number of minimum pitches and outbound calls. Leaders review the data and make adjustments in processes, policies, training or personnel to address failures based on that data. Winning leaders don’t look at poor performance as failures but as opportunities to solve a problem that gets the desired results.

Management Types

Many centers offer training short courses in management to give the managers the opportunity to discover the different types of management and achieve the higher objectives of their organizations. The types of management are divided into three types, as follows:

  • Strategic Management

Strategic management is the management of an organization’s resources to achieve its goals and objectives. Strategic management involves setting objectives, analyzing the competitive environment, analyzing the internal organization, evaluating strategies, and ensuring that management rolls out the strategies across the organization.

  • Sales Management

Sales management refers to the administration of the personal selling a company’s product line(s). It includes the planning, implementation, and control of sales programs, as well as recruiting, training, motivating, and evaluating members of the sales force. In a small business, these various functions may be performed by the owner or by the sales manager. The fundamental role of the sales manager is to develop and administer a selling program that effectively contributes to the organization’s goals. The sales manager for a small business would likely decide how many salespeople to employ, how best to select and train them, what sort of compensation and incentives to use to motivate them, what type of presentation they should make, and how the sales function should be structured for maximum contact with customers.

  • Marketing Management

marketing management refers to the tracking and review of a company’s marketing resources and activities. The scope of a business’ marketing management depends on the size of the business and the industry in which the business operates. Effective marketing management will use a company’s resources to increase its customer base, improve customer opinions of the company’s products and services, and increase the company’s perceived value.

Today, management courses are important for all organizations to enhance managers’ skills, thus will play a pivotal role regarding improving the performance of the company and achieving positive results on the short and long term.

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